Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt
A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a small,
tubular metal device commonly called a stent that is placed in the
middle of the liver to improve blood flow to and from the organ.
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic
In a TIPS procedure, physicians use image guidance to make a tunnel
through the liver to connect the portal vein (the vein that carries
blood from the digestive organs to the liver) to one of the hepatic
veins (three veins that carry blood away from the liver). A stent
is then placed in this tunnel to keep the pathway open.
Patients who typically need a TIPS have portal hypertension, a condition
that causes increased pressure in the portal vein. This pressure
causes blood to flow backward from the liver into the intestines,
causing enlarged veins and blood vessels, bleeding and the accumulation
of fluid in the chest or abdomen.
What are some common uses of the procedure?
A TIPS is used to treat the complications of portal hypertension,
- variceal bleeding, bleeding from any of the veins that normally
drain the stomach, esophagus, or intestines into the liver
- varices, large veins that develop (usually across the esophagus
and stomach) when there is a blockage in the blood flow throughout
- portal gastropathy, an engorgement of the veins in the wall of
the stomach, which can cause severe bleeding
- ascites, the accumulation of high-protein fluid in the chest
- Budd-Chiari syndrome, a blockage in one or more veins that carry
blood from the liver back to the heart.
How should I prepare?
You should report to your doctor all medications that you are taking,
including herbal supplements, and if you have any allergies, especially
to anesthesia or to contrast materials (also known as "dye" or "x-ray
dye"). Your physician may advise you to stop taking aspirin
or a blood thinner for a specified period of time days before your
Women should always inform their physician or x-ray technologist
if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging
tests are not performed during pregnancy because radiation can be
harmful to the fetus. If an x-ray is necessary, precautions will
be taken to minimize radiation exposure to the baby. See the Safety
page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays.
You may be instructed not to eat or drink anything after midnight
before your procedure. Your doctor will tell you which medications
you may take in the morning.
You may drink clear liquids on the day of your procedure.
You should plan to stay overnight at the hospital for one or more
You will be given a gown to wear during the procedure.
What does the equipment
In this procedure, x-ray or ultrasound equipment, a stent, and a
balloon-tipped catheter are used.
The equipment typically used for this examination consists of a
radiographic table, an x-ray tube and a television-like monitor that
is located in the examining room or in a nearby room. When used for
viewing images in real time (called fluoroscopy), the image intensifier
(which converts x-rays into a video image) is suspended over a table
on which the patient lies. When used for taking still pictures, a
drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate
that captures the images.
Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and
electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that is used
to scan the body and veins. The transducer is a small hand-held device
that resembles a microphone, attached to the scanner by a cord. The
transducer sends out high frequency sound waves and then listens
for the returning echo. The principles are similar to sonar used
by boats and submarines.
The ultrasound image is immediately visible on a nearby screen that
looks much like a computer or television monitor. The image is created
based on the amplitude (strength), frequency and time it takes for
the sound signal to return from the patient to the transducer.
A catheter is a long, thin plastic tube, about as thick as a strand
The stent used in this procedure is a small wire mesh tube usually
made of GORE-TEX®.
Other equipment that may be used during the procedure includes an
intravenous line (IV) and equipment that monitors your heart beat
and blood pressure.
How does the procedure work?
A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver and reduces abnormally
high blood pressure in the veins of the stomach, esophagus, bowel
and liver, as well as bleeding from enlarged veins across the esophagus
A TIPS procedure involves creating a pathway through the liver that
connects the portal vein (the vein that carries blood from the digestive
organs to the liver) to a hepatic vein (one of three veins that carry
blood from the liver to the heart).
A stent placed inside this pathway keeps it open and allows blood
to flow normally from the portal vein through the liver to the hepatic
vein, reducing high blood pressure in the portal vein and bleeding
from enlarged veins.
How is the procedure performed?
Image-guided, minimally invasive procedures such as a TIPS are most
often performed by a specially trained interventional radiologist
in an interventional radiology suite or occasionally in the operating
You will be positioned on your back.
You will be connected to monitors that track your heart rate, blood
pressure and pulse during the procedure.
A nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) line into
a vein in your hand or arm so that sedative medication can be given
intravenously. You may also receive general anesthesia.
The area of your body where the catheter is to be inserted will
be shaved, sterilized and covered with a surgical drape.
Your physician will numb the area near your right collarbone with
a local anesthetic.
A very small nick is made in the skin at the site.
Using ultrasound, the doctor will identify your internal jugular
vein, which is situated above your collarbone, and guide a catheter,
a long, thin, hollow plastic tube into the vessel.
Using a fluoroscope, the physician will then guide the catheter
into the liver and out into one of the hepatic veins. To help plan
for the placement of the TIPS stent, a contrast material will be
injected through your IV. X-rays of the veins and pressure measurements
will be taken.
Your physician will then guide the needle through the catheter to
create a pathway for the stent. The stent, placed over a balloon-tipped
catheter, will be advanced through the needle. Once it reaches the
correct position, the balloon is inflated, expanding the stent into
The balloon is then deflated and removed along with the catheter.
Pressure will be applied to stop any bleeding and the opening in
the skin is covered with a bandage. No sutures are needed.
You will be admitted to the hospital following your procedure, where
you will be closely observed.
This procedure is usually completed in an hour but may take up to
What will I experience during and after the procedure?
Devices to monitor your heart rate and blood pressure will be attached
to your body.
You will feel a slight pin prick when the needle is inserted into
your vein for the intravenous line (IV) and when the local anesthetic
If you receive a general anesthetic, you will be unconscious for
the entire procedure, and you will be monitored by an anesthesiologist.
The intravenous (IV) sedative will make you feel relaxed and sleepy.
You may or may not remain awake, depending on how deeply you are
When the needle is advanced through the liver and the pathway is
expanded by the balloon, you may experience discomfort. If you feel
pain, you should inform your physician; you may be given extra intravenous
As the contrast material passes through your body, you may get a
After the procedure, you will be monitored closely and your head
will be kept elevated for a few hours after you return to your room.
Often, symptoms are mild or controlled enough that the procedure
can done electively and patients may go home the next day. However,
the amount of bleeding that can occur can sometimes be life threatening
and those patients are monitored in intensive care beforehand and
After staying overnight at the hospital, you should be able to return
home within a few days after the procedure.
You should be able to resume your normal activities in seven to
Follow-up ultrasounds will be performed frequently after the TIPS
procedure to make sure that it remains open and functions properly.
Who interprets the results and how do I get them?
Prior to leaving the hospital, you will have an ultrasound exam
to determine the effectiveness of the procedure and placement of
The interventional radiologist can advise you as to whether the
procedure was a technical success when the procedure is completed.
What are the benefits vs. risks?
- A TIPS is designed to produce the same physiological results
as a surgical shunt or bypass, without the risks that accompany
- TIPS is a minimally invasive procedure that typically has a shorter
recovery time than surgery.
- Your TIPS should have less of an effect than open surgical bypass
on future liver transplantation surgery, because the abdomen has
not been entered.
- The TIPS is contained entirely inside the diseased liver, and
is removed with it during a transplant operation.
- Studies have shown that this procedure is successful in reducing
variceal bleeding in more than 90 percent of patients.
- No surgical incision is needed—only a small nick in the
skin that does not have to be stitched closed.
- Any procedure where the skin is penetrated carries a risk of
infection. The chance of infection requiring antibiotic treatment
appears to be less than one in 1,000.
- There is a very slight risk of an allergic reaction if contrast
material is injected.
- Any procedure that involves placement of a catheter inside a
blood vessel carries certain risks. These risks include damage
to the blood vessel, bruising or bleeding at the puncture site,
- Other possible complications of the procedure include:
- muscle stiffness in the neck
- bruising on the neck at the point of catheter insertion
- delayed stenosis, or narrowing within the stent, which is
less common with the current generation of GORE-TEX-lined stents.
- Serious complications, reported in fewer than five percent of
cases, may include:
- occlusion, or complete blockage, of the stent and rapid recurrence
- infection of the stent or fabric lining
- abdominal bleeding that might require a transfusion
- laceration of the hepatic artery, which may result in severe
liver injury or bleeding that could require a transfusion or
- heart arrhythmias or congestive heart failure
- death (extremely rare).
What are the limitations of TIPS?
Patients with more advanced liver disease are at greater risk for
worsening liver failure after TIPS. They are also at risk for encephalopathy,
which is an alteration of normal brain function that can lead to
confusion. This is because toxic substances in the bloodstream
are ordinarily filtered out by the liver. The TIPS may cause too
much of these substances to bypass the liver, so a patient who
already has encephalopathy because of their liver disease may not
be a good candidate for the procedure. Encephalopathy can be treated
with certain medications, a special diet or, by revising the stent,
but sometimes the stent must be blocked off intentionally to solve